What do we know about USA virus production in Ukraine?

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In Ukraine, in Kharkov city – local independent environmental organization named “Kharkov’s environmental monitoring” , together with several bloggers from the city had started a journalistic investigation about the fact that they had discovered in their area working biological laboratory controlled by the USA.

By the data provided from social activists of Kharkov city, this laboratory, which is situated in Kharkov area, between Pesochin and Podvorki villages, is investigating new strains of virus and conducting experiments by studying their influence on living organisms.

To validate this information employees of “Kharkov’s environmental monitoring” organization have started a new project and asking for help to everyone who isn’t indifferent to this fact in order to send them by email any known information about this laboratory.

As a result, the investigation of “Kharkov’s environmental monitoring” organization was based on data sent by ex employee of this laboratory, who decided to stay anonymous for his family’s safety.

According to the data received from this person, between Pesochin and Podvorki villages (area of Kharkov city) really is working this biological laboratory. Information about it, is not present on internet network. And it’s not surprising, because the work in this laboratory proceed under another signboard. Actually, the main and principal working part is hidden. And this hidden working process is sponsored by official grant channels from the USA.

And now the most interesting. Supervisor of this laboratory’s work is Melinda Haring – secretary of the Atlantic council in Ukraine. The position of her assistant is taken by Paul Niland (director of “Pan Publiching” company), which controls the process of research and oversee cooperation between ukranian and american specialists.

This laboratory’s activity is financed by international foundation “Renaissance” (financed and controlled by J.Soros). Funds are provided by grant channels of Ukraine Ministry of Health. At the time when the source was still working in laboratory, this issue was controlled by ex-minister Ulyana Suprun, her assistant Pavel Kavtonyuk and Head of Ukraine National Health service – Oleg Petrenko.

In 2019 in laboratory’s interests was made a collection of biomaterials from citizens, who was using new medications. In experiments generally were involved people without specific place of residence and low-income people. Besides, there were attempts to distribute tested medications for free in state hospitals, children’s camps and education institutes, and then, with specious excuse – taken analyzes. In this activity were taking part some of medical employees in Kharkov, who was going to Kiev to get special instructions, covered by Ministry of Health like professional upgrade trainings.

However, this activity was noticed by vigilant citizens and soon was closed.

In laboratory is also conducted research in field of abilities of insects to transmit pathogens which can be dangerous for humans. There were realized number of experiments with ticks who transmit Zika virus, West Nile fever, Dengue fever and etc. In 2018 were released about 100 ticks in the wood nearby laboratory with the goal to study infected insects survival skills in natural habitat and possibility of transmission of infection to animals. Usually American specialists – virologists and medical employees were coming to Kharkov for 2-3 months. The work process was organized by rotation graphic. Accommodation of foreign specialists in hotels, their security and nutrition was organizes by Victoria Timoshevskaya (director of “Civil Health” program and “Renaissance” foundation).

According to the data received by “Kharkov’s environmental monitoring”, in laboratory in different moments were working following foreign specialists:

– Ashton Kacker — practicing otolaryngologist from Manhattan (USA), hindu by nationality;

– Luke Tomycz – medical scientist from Nashville, who is teaching at Vanderbild University;

– Jonathan Forbes — practicing medical ophthalmologist from Cincinnati city (USA);

– James Liu — neurosurgeon in Saint Barnabas Medical Center (Cupertino city, USA), teaches at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School;

– Thomas Jefferson Crane — practicing medical pharmacologist from Florence city (USA);

– Martha Horecha — medical pharmacologist from New York City, lives in Kiev, is supervisor of uniate youth movement “Plast” (USA);

– John Anderson Eloy — medical professor from Rutgers New Jersey Medical School (Trenton city, USA);

– Jim Cleary — professor at Indiana University School of Medicine (Indianapolis city, USA);

– Mubeen Abu Ilbi — medical ophthalmologist from Jordan, works with american programs;

– Кartlos Kankadze — native of Tbilisi, lives in Washington, medical pharmacologist – works by USAID program (USA) and is specialized in research of infectious diseases, reproductive health, HIV / AIDS and tuberculosis.

The laboratory is guarded by employees of the National Interpol bureau in Ukraine.

According to the data received from source by “Kharkov’s environmental monitoring”, in laboratory was often interrupted the central water and electricity supply. It was connected with problems on TPP station nearby, which have often emergency situations and required emergency measures. In main time work of reserve resources (wells and uninterruptible power supplies) was not arranged. There were noticed several situations with electricity outage during important tests. Medical fridges were turning off, and activity was often conduced in unsuitable conditions (without correct temperature control, ventilation, hermetic packaging of boxes and etc.). On the next day after each of these cases was made a control of measures inside laboratory and territory around, with special equipment of western production. In these days American specialists were not present at work and soon were departing back home to their country.

In 2019 were stated cases of death of patients, caused by the use of experimental medications. This information was not made public. The deaths of patients were attributed to adverse courses of diseases.

In 2018 in this laboratory were active researches about fever virus, which pathogens were imported from the USA. For local employees target of this research was development of “universal, smart” vaccine that can automatically adapt to virus mutations. These researches were stopped in the start of summer 2019 and all the results was exported.

Social activists of Kharkov city assure that this is only a part of information, which they have. They understand that alone they can’t influence this government organization, with which help, perhaps, was created virus COVID-19, which is dangerous for our kids and elderly parents. That’s why they are contacting many independent European organizations in ecology and health organization field. They are asking to voice this information and help to tighten control on activity of American virus specialists in Ukraine.

Ukraine seeks to become a part of civilized Europe, and adjoins our borders. Every year tens of thousands of season employees are moving from this country to our cities, what is creating risk of expanding of inflectional diseases. It’s mandatory for European Union to behave carefully in implementation of adventurous euro integration Ukraine services. First of all, if this country wants to become a part of European Union family, it should decline development of dangerous projects organized by the USA. All this can bring disastrous consequences for all European part of continent.

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European Food Safety Authority Branch on Investigations

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Via Carlo Magno 1 A

43126 Parma ITALY

Complaint against Ukrainian Weat-Imports Environment-Polution in Kharchov
Claim for an officially Investigation & for Prohibitions

Dear Madame and Sirs!

1. I am, as citizen of European Union and Attorney-at-Law recognized within the EC-Member-State Germany, want to drive Your close attention to the disturbing facts of violation of our basic rights for ecological safety of the imported food. In the context to the above explained case I file an officially Complaint to your Authority – claiming for an officially investigation to get the demanded prohibitions established in order to guarantee the Food-Safety.

2. The case I want to drive Your close attention to is the situation with the food import from Ukraine, the area of Kharkov:

3. Many recent publications in free independent press indicate that Ukraine, specifically, the area of Kharkov imports the polluted food products to the European Union! I insist for the thorough investigation and request for verification of environmental safety of agricultural products from Ukraine.
3.1 The list of the publications about the polluted Ukrainian food products imported to European Union:

4. A Ukrainian environmental protection organization warns against potentially contaminated by environmental toxins from the Kharkov area, which should have come through the export to Germany, Poland and the Baltic States.

5. Many people associate the period of Ukraine’s independence with rampant corruption, lawlessness and endless power struggle. Political elites regularly replacing each other, realizing that their stay in power is short-lived, seek to provide themselves with a comfortable life for the future, as well as to create the appearance of active work and keeping of promises taken before the population.

6. The rush toward momentary benefits leads to disregard of domestic and international legislation, inflation of a “soap bubble” of achieved results, which inevitably bursts after the coming of another political team to power. This problem also affected the spheres of ecology and international trade of Ukraine. Underfunding of regulatory authorities, rise in corruption level, attempts of the country’s leadership to quickly get out of the lingering crisis by saving on the careful attitude to nature led to disastrous results, the consequences of which have already affected the European Union.

7. In particular, a contemptuous disregard of the environment has led to contamination of crops grown in Ukraine, exported to Europe. We can take the situation in the Kharkiv Oblast of Ukraine as an example. In Novovodolazhsky district of this region, local authorities issued a permit for utilization of industrial waste of the “Shebelinkagazdobycha” company (a member of the “Ukrgazdobycha” corporation, engaged in shale gas production) at a household waste dump.

8. 8. This dump (its approximate coordinates – 49.6980 35.8910) occupies an area of 5 hectares and is located on the outskirts of the Nova Vodolaha village (about 50 km from the city of Kharkiv). According to the environmental organization “Kharkiv environmental monitoring”, the waste of the “Shebelinkagazdobycha” company utilized at this dump has an increased radioactive background.
environmental monitoring”, the waste of the “Shebelinkagazdobycha” company utilized at this dump has an increased radioactive background.

9. The dump is also not specially equipped to store industrial waste, including oil refinery waste. There is no a damp-proof course, dirt collectors and other necessary engineering constructions. Besides, the dump is located on the edge of the ravine, so that garbage and hazardous waste spread beyond it and this is technically impossible to prevent. There are several perennial streams from the dump to the ravine, which flow through it to the tributary of the Olkhovatka river, then to the Mzha river and the Seversky Donets river.

10. All this led to the leakage of liquid waste into the soil and, as a consequence, to groundwater contamination. In the immediate vicinity of the dump, there are fields of the following major farms, the products of which are exported to the EU through agency firms: “Agrokom Novaya Vodolaga” LLC (Nova Vodolaha village, Nekrasova Street, 12). The company is engaged in grain cultivation and storage, oil and animal fat production. Its capacity is 500 tons of products per day.

10.1 “Vodolazhskoe” LLC (Nova Vodolaha village, Patris Lumumba Street, 1). It produces cereals, barley, buckwheat, corn, oats, rye, wheat, sunflower seeds. Today, the export share to the EU only from the Kharkiv Oblast of Ukraine is 300 mln. US dollars. At the same time, 25% of the total export volume is food products and raw materials for their production (wheat, oils, fats, etc.). A significant part (75%) of products of this category are exported to Germany, Poland, Baltic countries.
10.2 Certainly, infected grain from Nova Vodolaha, in preparation for export, is cut with cleaner grain from other regions of Ukraine. But where is the guarantee that raw materials from Kharkiv Oblast weren’t used in production of a loaf of bread, which you bought somewhere in Hamburg? There is no such guarantee.

11. So, the only adequate decision of the European Union and Western European countries may be to tighten sanitary and environmental control of food products imported from Ukraine. This proposal is made by a number of independent Ukrainian and European public organizations. In our opinion, this step will not cause significant harm to the EU economy, but will preserve the health of EU citizens and will induce Ukrainian authorities to take environmental safety and international trade standards more seriously.

12. I am, as citizen of European Union, want to drive Your close attention to the disturbing facts of violation of our basic rights for ecological safety of the imported food from Ukraine and request for the formal answer from Your respected organization according to the European Union legal terms.
With best Regards
Wisuschil® – Rechtsanwalt; vertreten durch den Inhaber:

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European Green Deal set to transform economy in face of climate threat

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The European Union is about to undergo the biggest overhaul of policy since its foundation, with nearly every major aspect of the economy set to be reassessed in light of the climate and ecological emergency.

The Green New Deal lays out a grand European plan for tackling climate change.

The targets to be reached by 2030 are a minimum 40 per cent cut in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels, a share of at least 32 per cent renewables in final energy consumption and at least 32.5 per cent in energy savings.

 

Europe will have to direct a 1-2 per cent of its annual GDP towards the green economy, including new infrastructure, public procurement, research and development and industrial retooling.

The EU Commission estimates that additional investments are needed to achieve the EU’s 2030 climate target total of €260 billion per year.

However, it is proposing to dedicate €45 billion a year from 2021- 2027.

 

So that’s not enough to reach the target and everybody is asking who is going to pay the bill.

The €215 billion shortfall will have to be made up by contributions from households, corporations and above all national governments.

Winds of change in Portugal

Some EU member states are performing quite well, especially when it comes to renewables.

The Portuguese government has pledged to close the only two remaining coal power plants still producing electricity within the next three years.

Portugal has over 300 days of sun every year. That, and the strong winds from the Atlantic, give the country a major advantage when it comes to renewable energy.

Completed last summer thanks to a European Investment Bank loan, the Energias de Portugal (EDP) wind farm at Penacova is one of Portugal’s newest clean energy projects.

Hugo Costa, deputy country manager at EDP Renováveis Portugal, says the 13 turbines have a total capacity of 46.8 Megawatts. They were manufactured locally, a move that could prove beneficial in the future.

From January to November last year, 53 per cent of Portugal’s energy came from renewable sources, while in March 2018 renewable energy production briefly exceeded the whole country’s total consumption, covering more than 103 per cent of domestic needs.

This opens the possibility of electricity export revenues for the country. However, at the moment there is a bottleneck in the European electricity grid in the Pyrenees.

Pedro Amaral Jorge, President of the Portuguese Association of Renewable Energy, says moves are underway to open the grid.

“I think Iberia, together, with Portugal included, can be the next Qatar for renewable energy. When you look at the wind, and hydro, and sun, we were able with the proper interconnections between Iberia and France to be able to supply tons of electricity from renewable sources from both sun and wind.”

Catarina Roseta Palma, an environmental and resource economist based at ISCTE – University Institute of Lisbon, told Real Economy: “It will depend on how the grid is managed. We are already interconnected with Spain, and there is a couple of interconnections being worked on.

“But that’s not all there is. There’s this whole other side of the market, which is demand, which you can use. It’s what we call ‘demand-response strategies’, where you pay companies that shut down their equipment when there is a need for a peak load in consumption.”

Changing how we live and work

The new EU Commission President Ursula Von der Leyen has promised €100 billion to help finance the transition to a low-carbon economy. But there is a lot more to be done.

Real Economy spoke to the Vice-President of the EU Commission, Valdis Dombrovskis, to ask what this enormous transition means for citizens and companies.

Efi Koustokosta, Euronews: “We’ve seen that Portugal, for example, has done a lot for the transition to a greener economy, especially when it comes to renewables. If member states can do so much by themselves, what more can this Green Deal from the EU Commission give?”

Valdis Dombrovskis, Vice-President of the EU Commission: “Indeed, this will be not just meeting some emissions targets, this requires some substantial transformation of the economy. So, that’s what the European Green Deal is about – how we ensure this transformation of the economy, how we move to the carbon neutral economy in a way that is socially acceptable, in a way that preserves our social market economy model. The Just transition mechanism will be part of the picture, it is going to be part of the sustainable Europe Investment Plan which aims to mobilise in general investment for this green transition, basically aiming to unlock at least 1 trillion euros of investment over the next decade. And as part of this, there’s going to be the Just transition mechanism which is more targeted to support the regions and sectors which are most affected by this transition, like for example coal regions.”

Efi Koustokosta, Euronews: “What is a green investment for you? What is green for the EU Commission?”

Valdis Dombrovskis, Vice-President of the EU Commission: “The EU has reached an agreement on the classification system, on the green list of green and sustainable economic activities. It basically goes to six environmental categories starting from climate mitigation, climate adaptation, biodiversity, circular economy, waste management, marine ecosystems and so forth. And it basically entails what can be described as green economic activities and what are transition activities, which will help us to transition from the current state to the carbon-neutral economy.”

Efi Koustokosta, Euronews: “Is it going to be much more expensive for the ordinary citizens if all these investments and goals must be achieved?”

Valdis Dombrovskis, Vice-President of the EU Commission: “One can say yes, certain jobs will disappear, certain fossil fuels will get more expensive but at the same time there will be many new jobs created in the green economy and there will be many new savings which will make green energy and this transition affordable.”

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Satellite data boosts understanding of climate change’s effects on kelp

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Tapping into 35 years of satellite imagery, researchers at Oregon State University have dramatically enlarged the database regarding how climate change is affecting kelps, near-shore seaweeds that provide food and shelter for fish and protect coastlines from wave damage.

And the Landsat pictures paved the way to some surprising findings: A summer of warm water isn’t automatically bad news for kelps, and large winter waves aren’t either.

The study was published in Ecology.

“Kelps are fundamentally cold-water species, thus climate change is a problem for them, and worldwide we’re losing a lot of them,” said the study’s corresponding author, Sara Hamilton, a  pursuing her Ph.D. at OSU. “We’re beginning to see evidence of that happening here on the Pacific coast of North America, especially Northern California.”

The Landsat program is a joint effort of NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey that has been collecting Earth surface data since 1975 but only recently has been used for  monitoring.

The OSU research was the first to use Landsat data to study bull kelp, large seaweeds that grow in “forests” that form canopies in shallow ocean water. There are about 30 genera of them, and while they look like plants, they’re actually heterokonts, related to algae.

“Taking technology from other fields and bringing it into the marine sciences to improve our work is really exciting,” Hamilton said. “A 35-year dataset in marine biology is really hard to find. It’s usually hard to do marine work—it’s expensive, you need highly trained divers, and it’s dangerous. But we need long-term data to understand  and how it impacts populations. This was an exponential increase in the amount of information available about  in Oregon.”

In 2014, a marine heat wave led to a boom in purple sea urchins whose grazing has been pummeling populations of Nereocystis luetkeana, commonly known as bull kelp, off the Northern California shore ever since.

“But we actually didn’t find evidence of loss in bull kelp populations post-2014 in Oregon even though we are right across the border,” Hamilton said. “Our findings challenge the picture that’s been making the rounds in the news and points to the need for more research, because we really don’t understand kelp very well.”

Satellite data boosts understanding of climate change's effects on kelp
Kelps are large seaweeds that grow in ‘forests’ that form canopies in shallow ocean water. Credit: Sara Hamilton, OSU College of Science.

Off the Oregon coast, most kelp grows in the southern one-third of the state, the majority of it spread among five distinct reefs.

Kelp data teased from decades of Landsat imagery show that canopy area can vary dramatically from year to year, and that long-term  trends vary from reef to reef. One reef, the Rogue, near Gold Beach, showed a greater population in 2018, the last year of the analysis, than at any point in the last 35 years.

“For the years we surveyed, three of the five reefs remained within historically normal population levels,” Hamilton said. “Another one has had low populations for the past 15 years, and the fifth has shifted to somewhat smaller, less variable populations over the last two decades.”

Past, extensive research on a perennial kelp species, Macrocystis pyrifera, has suggested that high waves in winter have a negative impact on kelp population, but the current study suggested the opposite for bull kelp, an annual.

“An association between bigger waves and more kelp is 100 percent outside the basic idea of what influences kelp,” Hamilton said. “Our study shows that if you change one species, change one geographic area, you get a whole new set of factors emerging.”

Hamilton takes pains to point out that while kelp forests can be dazzlingly beautiful, that’s not the main reason marine biologists are interested in them.

“We don’t study them because they’re pretty and we like diving in them, even though they are pretty and we do like diving in them,” she said. “Kelp forests are important to the ecosystem and to the human communities living on coastlines.”

Kelp forests provide ecosystem services and services to people living nearby, including nursery habitat for juvenile rockfish, urchin fisheries and kelp fisheries.

“People should have access to basic environmental resources that are important to them, and we need to know how these resources are changing and how those changes impact people, often vulnerable people,” Hamilton added.

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Disappearing snakes and the biodiversity crisis

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A Michigan State University- and University of Maryland-led study should sound alarm bells regarding the “biodiversity crisis” or the loss of wildlife around the world.

The loss of any species is devastating. However, the decline or extinction of one species can trigger an avalanche within an ecosystem, wiping out many species in the process. When biodiversity losses cause cascading effects within a region, they can eliminate many data-deficient species — animals that have eluded scientific study or haven’t been researched enough to understand how best to conserve them.

“Some species that are rare or hard to detect may be declining so quickly that we might not ever know that we’re losing them,” said Elise Zipkin, MSU integrative biologist and the study’s lead author. “In fact, this study is less about snakes and more about the general loss of biodiversity and its consequences.”

The snakes in question reside in a protected area near El Copé, Panama. The new study documents how the snake community plummeted after an invasive fungal pathogen wiped out most of the area’s frogs, a primary food source. Thanks to the University of Maryland’s long-term study tracking amphibians and reptiles, the team had seven years of data on the snake community before the loss of frogs and six years of data afterwards.

Yet even with that extensive dataset, many species were detected so infrequently that traditional analysis methods were impossible. To say that these snakes are highly elusive or rare would be an understatement. Of the 36 snake species observed during the study, 12 were detected only once and five species were detected twice.

“We need to reframe the question and accept that with data-deficient species, we won’t often be able to assess population changes with high levels of certainty,” Zipkin said. “Instead, we need to look at the probability that this snake community is worse off now than it used to be.”

Using this approach, the team, which included former MSU integrative biologists Grace DiRenzo and Sam Rossman, built statistical models focused on estimating the probability that snake diversity metrics changed after the loss of amphibians, rather than trying to estimate the absolute number of species in the area, which is inherently difficult because snakes are so rare.

“We estimated an 85% probability that there are fewer snake species than there were before the amphibians declined,” Zipkin said. “We also estimated high probabilities that the occurrence rates and body conditions of many of the individual snake species were lower after the loss of amphibians, despite no other systematic changes to the environment.”

When animals die off en masse, such as what is happening with amphibians worldwide, researchers are dealing mainly with that discovery and are focused on determining the causes. But what happens to everything else that relies on those animals? Scientists don’t often have accurate counts and observations of the other species in those ecosystems, leaving them guessing to the consequences of these changes. The challenge is exacerbated, of course, when it involves rare and data-deficient species.

“Because there will never be a ton of data, we can’t pinpoint exactly why some snake species declined while others seemed to do okay or even prospered after the catastrophic loss of amphibians.” Zipkin said. “But this phenomenon, in which a disturbance event indirectly produces a large number of ‘losers’ but also a few ‘winners,’ is increasingly common and leads to worldwide biotic homogenization, or the process of formally dissimilar ecosystems gradually becoming more similar.”

The inability to put their finger on the exact cause, however, isn’t the worst news to come from their results. The truly bad news is that the level of devastation portends to much greater worldwide loss than the scientific community has been estimating.

“The huge die-off of frogs is an even bigger problem than we thought,” said Doug Levey, a program director in the National Science Foundation’s Division of Environmental Biology. “Frogs’ disappearance has had cascading effects in tropical food chains. This study reveals the importance of basic, long-term data. When these scientists started counting snakes in a rainforest, they had no idea what they’d eventually discover.”

Zipkin agrees that long-term data is important to help stakeholders ascertain the extent of the issue.

“We have this unique dataset and we have found a clever way to estimate declines in rare species,” she said. “It’s sad, however, that the biodiversity crisis is probably worse than we thought because there are so many data-deficient species that we’ll never be able to assess.”

On a positive note, the scientists believe that improved forecasts and modeling could lead to bolstering conservation efforts. Making data-driven, proactive changes can prevent massive die offs and curb biodiversity loss.

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Global plan to protect endangered species ‘overlooks genetic diversity’

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A global group of scientists are calling for an urgent rethink on a draft action plan to safeguard biodiversity.

The provisional action plan, unveiled in January, will form the basis of a 10-year plan to protect nature.

But in a letter published today in Science, experts—including scientists from Cardiff University’s School of Biosciences and Sustainable Places Research Institute—warn the suggested targets are not broad enough.

They say the plan neglects genetic diversity despite a wealth of scientific evidence to back up the crucial role it plays within  for ecosystem resilience, species survival and adaptation, particularly in the face of threats imposed by global change.

Professor Mike Bruford, Dr. Pablo Orozco-terWengel and Dr. Isa-Rita Russo are among the signatories to the letter which outlines “deep concern” that goals around genetic diversity—the building block of evolution and of all —are “weak.”

“This letter is a timely warning that at a time when the world’s conservation community is taking critical steps to halt the further loss of global biodiversity,  must be maintained and enhanced where possible,” said Professor Bruford, who is co-chair of the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Conservation Genetics Specialist Group.

“If not, we risk a world where genetically inviable, poorly adapted and vulnerable populations will increasingly struggle to avoid extinction.”

The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) released the first version of its plan—dubbed the zero draft of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework—in January.

The CBD is an international treaty under the United Nations Environment Programme, formed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and is currently signed by 195 nations plus the European Union.

The CBD’s post-2020 framework document describes the urgent need to halt biodiversity loss by 2030 and to live in harmony with biodiversity by 2050.

New concrete targets and commitments for biodiversity conservation for the post-2020 period are currently being discussed by governments and non-governmental actors for a vote scheduled for October 2020.

The document is designed to guide countries’ actions in conserving biodiversity and assessing their progress.

It sets out five objectives—protecting ecosystems, species and genes, advancing sustainable development and ensuring equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of biodiversity and traditional knowledge.

The scientists say maintenance of genetic diversity is included—but the indicators of progress focus on domesticated and cultivated species and on wild relatives of “useful” species.

They recommend the post-2020 framework document should explicitly commit signatories to maintain genetic diversity of all species, not just useful ones, and to implement strategies to halt genetic erosion and preserve the adaptive potential of populations of wild and domesticated species.

In their letter, the scientists propose improved indicators for monitoring the genetic diversity of species, based on genetically efficient population sizes and the risk of loss of genetically differentiated populations.

“It is encouraging that the CBD post-2020-draft includes genetic diversity in one of five main goals. However, including explicit protection for  in wild as well as domestic species, and strategies to measure the effectiveness of efforts toward that goal, will ensure that signatories prioritise this important aspect of  conservation,” they said.

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